The power requirement of the country is rapidly increasing with the increase in the growth of
the industrial sectors. India depends on Thermal power as its main source (around 75% of
the power produced in thermal power), as a result, the quantity of Ash produced shall also
increase. Indian coal on average has 35 % ash and this is one of the prime factors which
shall lead to increased ash production and hence, Ash utilization problems for the country.
Out of the total ash produced, fly ash contributes to a small percentage, the majority
being pond ash and bottom ash.
Fly ash is one of the numerous substances that cause air, water, and soil pollution,
disrupt ecological cycles, and set off environmental hazards. it also contains trace amounts
of toxic metals which may have a negative effect on human health and on plants and the land
where the fly ash decomposed not gets reused.
The fly ash is disposed of either in the dry form or mixed with water and release in
the slurry into locations called ash ponds. Occasional failure of such ash ponds not only affects
vast tracts of agricultural land nearby but also pollutes river water even up to 100 kilometers
endangers aquatic and human life.
Four countries, namely, China, India, United States, and Poland alone produce more
than 270 million tons of fly ash each year.
Such a huge quantity does pose challenging problems, in the form of land usage,
health hazards, and environmental dangers. Both in disposal, as well as in utilization, the utmost
care has to be taken, to safeguard the interest of human life, wildlife, and the environment.
Several factors have impeded fly ash utilization in India, while it is being extensively
used globally. Coal-based thermal power stations have been operational for more than 50
years but the concept of developing environment-friendly solutions for fly ash utilization is
only about 15 years old. Overall fly ash utilization in India stands at a fairly low level of
about 30 percent of the quantity generated.
- Compression test confirm that at the same w/c ratio, compressive
strength of concrete according to the replacement level of cement with
Experimental results show that 10%FLY ASH has lower strength after
28 days than 20%and 30%, 30% FLY ASH gain higher compressive
strength than others.
As in the table, we can clearly see that by replacing cement with 30% of
FLY ASH, compressive strength is increased by about 10.52 %.